Monday, October 25, 2010


Monday, 25th October 2010

Date : Sunday, 24th Oct 2010 From 8.00AM to 10.00AM

4.1 Measurements of Central Tendency

Consists of
1) Mean
2) Median  ( also known as second quartile ) Q2
3) Mode
4) First Quartile (Q1)
5) Third Quartile (Q3)

4.2. The Mean

Mean for ungrouped data

Mean = X1 + X2 + ...+ Xn


(a) Mean For  53 32 61 27 39 44 49 57

Mean = 53 + 32 + 61 + 27 + 39 + 44 + 49 + 57
           = 362
           = 45.25

(b) Mean for repeated numbers

Mean = F1X1 + F2X2 + .....FnXn
                    F1 + F2 + ... + Fn


         Score               Number of Participants                              Fx

            0                                    4                                                   0

            1                                    6                                                    6

             2                                   3                                                    6

            3                                     7                                                   21

            4                                    5                                                    20

                                                  25                                                  53

Mean = 53
           -----  = 2.12

(c) Mean For Grouped Data  

Example : Calculate The Mean of the Height of the Students

              Height                                                  Frequency

         100 - 104                                                     3

         105 - 109                                                      2

         110 - 114                                                      4

          115 - 119                                                     1

Mean  = Sum (Mid-Point X Frequency )
                         Total Frequency

Mid-Point = 1/2 (Upper Boundary + Lower Boundary ) or

                 = 1/2 ( Upper Limit + Lower Limit )

           Height                  Frequency                   Mid-Point

         100 - 104                   3                         1/2 (100 + 104) = 102   

         105 - 109                   2                          1/2 (105 + 109 ) = 107 

         110 - 114                   4                          1/2 ( 110 + 114 ) = 112

          115 - 119                  1                          1/2 ( 115 + 119) = 117

Mean = (102X3) + (107 X 2 ) + ( 112 x 4) + (117 x 1 )

          = 1085

          = 108.5

(c) Mean of combined sets of data

     Mean = H1 + H2
                  n1 + n2

     Or Mean = n1m1  + n2m2
                             n1 + n2
Example :

The mean age for 8 children is 11 years old while the mean age for 7 adults is 35 years old. What is the overall age for the 15 persons

Mean = (8) (11) + (7)  ( 35 )

            = 22.2 Years Old

Read more

Tuesday, April 6, 2010

Oral English Workshop Questions Part 1

Tuesday, 6th April 2010

Good afternoon all.

For those who failed to come for the Oral English Workshop, here I would like to share with you some of the questions discussed during the workshop.

1. Define the meanings of “phonetics” and “phonemes”. What are the two groups of “phonemes”?
-“Phonetics” is the study of sounds made by humans when they talk. In 2 while “phonetics” is any sound that changes the meaning of the word.
-Phonemes can be placed in 2 groups called vowels and consonants.
2. There are many techniques that we can use to distinguish details when listening. One of them is to remain focused on what the speaker is saying. List 2 other techniques to help you distinguish detail when listening.
- Identifying the cause-effect relationship means at the conclusion after a connection between actions and outcomes has been made on (in other words) finding out what happened and why it happened as a result of preceding events
-Identifying time order relationship means being introduced to items in the other in which they occurs or develops. The order is important and cannot be changed otherwise the meaning will changed to.
3. Why is it important to listener to listen for speakers bias and stereotypes in messages. Give 4 examples of when this can happen.
- to able to make objective and fair judgment of the message that is delivered.
-cannot allow themselves balance views on the mess
- Political speech at rallies
-reviews for examples book reviews, travel from reviews. etc
4. Name the 4 difference types of language cues that help listeners to recognize important ideas and information in the lecturer speech.
- Stress, intonations and pauses
-use of relative clauses or other supporting clauses
- Logical connections and other phrases
- Vocal underlining, pitch and volume of speech
5. Define the following with regards to speech productions:-
a) Enunciation
- clearly and cohesively, not mumbling, slurring and pronunciation words poorly.
b) Stress
- The act of putting an emphasis on certain syllables in a word or certain words in sentences to highlight meaning, attitude or grammars.
c) Rhythm
- The speech pattern that breaks down sentences in to components parts which allows to use of suitable pace to clarify meaning
d) voice projection
-The volume of voice (hand in soft) in terms or distance, clarity and connection with listener/ audience.
6. Why are religious issues and politics considered inappropriate topics for small talks and should avoids.
-because they are personal and sensitive to the listener.
7) They are 5 essential stages in preparing an oral presentation of the speech. Name 4 of them and briefly described what required of each stage.
a) selecting a topic for a oral presentation
- The topic may be selected for the speech or the speaker has a choice depending on the type of audience, occasions and location for the speech.
b) Researching on the selected topic
-Looking for the information from a variety of resource (books, journal and the internet)
c) Planning the speech
-Preparing the outline of the speech having introduction, body (main ideas) and summation/conclusion.
d) Organizing the ideas
- Structuring and arranging the ideas
e) Preparing the speech
- writing the speech and practice it to ensure it is within time limit and has connected all essential elements.
8. Many people fear speaking before an audience but speech giving is a still that can be learnt. Suggest and briefly explain two ways to overcome this fear.
a) making good preparation.
-this is achieved when we are sure about what we want to speak, have collected sufficient materials and have organized the ideas in clear and structured way.
b) Having high confidence
- this is achieved by being well-prepared and well-rehearsed preparing and rehearsing ahead of time will help in increasing our confidence and ensuring speech content and delivery is totally covered.
9. What is deference between negotiating and conceding in a interaction.
-interactions occurs when members of a discussion or meeting take opposing sides or a particulars issues By giving alternatives suggestion or solutions which are agued with appropriate reasons/justification, a compromise can be reached and thus the conflict is resolved.
-Interaction occur when one speaker, having shared his position on a certain matter with facts and reasons, agrees that another speakers is right and has ‘won’ the argument.
10. Why is turn-taking is group interaction important? What happens when turn taking is ignored?
- it allows speakers to take turn is having their saying. In this sense no 2 speaker would speak at the same time and therefore disrupt the flow of the speech.
Implication of ignoring turn-taking
-There will be no pauses and people would not listen to the speakers because everybody want to speak. There is no respect for the speaker who has flown.

Good Luck to all
Read more

Sunday, April 4, 2010

OUM1103 Learning Skills For Open and Distance Learners Workshop Questions- Part 1 of 3

Sunday, 4th April 2010

Good Morning to all.

Today is the last day for Semester January students to prepare for their 1103 Learning Skills For open and Distance Learners final examination as it is going to be held tomorrow, from 9.00AM to 10.30AM.
This afternoon I am going to post the Workshop questions held last week, Saturday, 27th March 2010.

1.  What is Online Public Access Catalogue ( OPAC ) ?

A. A record of print object
B. A record of online books
C. A record of electronic journals
D. A record of web based materials

Notes :
OPAC is an electronic or online catalogue for material available in a library. All printed and audio-visual materials available for use in TSDS Digital library are recorded and searchable through OPAC.
Zaiton Osman.,Abtar Kaur.,Sharifah Hanon Bidin.,Halimatolhanin Mohd Khalid.,Harvinder Kaur.,Hazna Ahmad.,et al.(2009, p.165)
2. Which of the following uses acronyms to improve memorisation skills?

B. Mind Map
C. Mnemonics
D. Visual Association

Note :
Mnemonics is a device such as formula, rhyme or acronym to help one remember facts or ideas.
Zaiton Osman.,Abtar Kaur.,Sharifah Hanon Bidin.,Halimatolhanin Mohd Khalid.,Harvinder Kaur.,Hazna Ahmad.,et al.(2009, p.130

3. When using Microsoft Word, which of the following would you use to ensure you have a copy of the most recent work?

A. File
B. Save
C. Copy
D. Open

4. Arrange the following steps in the Information trail before you present it into an essay :
i. Selecting and analysing the topic (1)
ii. Evaluating the relevant information (4)
iii. Applying  the appropriate search strategies (3)
iv. Identifying the information resources and sources (2)

A. i,iii.iv and ii
B. iii, ii, i and iv
C. i,iv,iii and ii
D. iv,iii,ii and i

Answer : 
Zaiton Osman.,Abtar Kaur.,Sharifah Hanon Bidin.,Halimatolhanin Mohd Khalid.,Harvinder Kaur.,Hazna Ahmad.,et al.(2009, p.152)

5. During information search, what is the function of Boolean "NOT"

A. It increases search result
B. It recognises the correct information
C. It locates accurate and reliable information
D. It excludes certain aspects from the search result

Note :
A Boolean connector helps to NARROW DOWN or BROADEN search and give a more accurate search by combining KEYWORDS, PHRASES or TERMS. There are three types of BOOLEAN connector as follows:-
(1) AND. It is used to combine more than one KEYWORDS. Using AND will eliminate all general information and will narrow down our search.
(2) OR. It is Use when search result is TOO LITTLE or when we want to find additional articles or books, or to connect the synonyms of the KEYWORDS.
(3) NOT. It is also to narrow down our search. It will excludes CERTAIN ASPECTS from the search result, that is when particular KEYWORD is not required.

  Zaiton Osman.,Abtar Kaur.,Sharifah Hanon Bidin.,Halimatolhanin Mohd Khalid.,Harvinder Kaur.,Hazna Ahmad.,et al.(2009, p.162)

6. Title of the book : Emotion Social Relationship
    Written by : Ruff. Carol D. and Singer Burton
    Published By : Oxford University Press
    Released : 200y
    Using Advanmce Search in Ebrary database, which of the following can help to find the above book?

A. Author : Singer
B. Title : Oxford
C. Subject : Emotion
D. Publication Year : 2006

Note : 
There are four types of search Strategies :
(1) Author Search - If you know the author
(2) Title Search - When you know the title
(3) Subject Search - When you don't have information on AUTHOR or TITLE but you only know the subject.
(4) Keywords search - The most efficient search strategy when you are not searching for specifics items. This strategy useful for searching for electronic database and the internet, i.e..searching information for assignments.
Note :
Refer to Page 160 of the Module Book.

  7. Which of the following should not be done when writing an Assignment?

A. Use Quotation
B. Use Bullet Points
C. Use short sentence
D. Use complete sentence

Note :
Refer to Dos and DON'Ts when writing an Assignment Page 115.

8. Which of the tool in Microsoft Excel worksheet can arrange the data in ascending and descending manner?

A. Sort
B. Chart
C. Arrange
D. Auto Format

9. Which of the following TRUE regarding e-book database in TSDAS Digital Library ?

A. OPAC is an e-book database
B. User can borrow the e-book easily
C. Multiple user can read the same e-book simultaneously 
D. E-book can be viewed from "course-mate"

Note :
Digital books are electronic book. The popularly known as e-book , in digital format and accessible online.The e-book database that TSDAS subscribe to are (1) Ebrary, Book24X7, InfosecurityNetBase, ITKnowledge Base, SpringerLink, InfoSci Books and Mosby's Nursing Consult.
Page 176 - Module Book

10. Holistic Counselling: A New Vision for Mental Health By : Edwards Steve South Africa Journal of Psychology, Dec2008, Vol. 38 issue 4, p753-755, 3p:
Database: Academic source Premier
The above journal is available in EbscoHost database in TSDAS Digital Library
Which of the followings can help to locate the above e-journal article?

A. Author : Steve AND Title : Counselling
B. Subject: Counselling AND Title:Psychology
C.Subject : Vision AND Keyword : Mental Health
D. Author : Edwards AND Subject : Mental Health

11. As an OUM student, what skills required to maximizes the usage of the digital library?

A. Information Retrieval Skills
B. Communication Skills
C. Language Skills
D. Reading Skills

12. In a Written assignment, what should be included in the introduction

A. Ideas and facts
B. Scope of the paper
C. Sense of completion
D. Explanation of the Issues

Contents Of Written Assignment
1. Introduction
(a) Scope of the paper
(b) Short and not more than 2 paragraph
2. Body Of Contents
(a) Contains ideas, o[pinion and facts
(b)Ideas opinion and facts-explain and argue systematically and logically
(c) Each paragraph contain one main point/idea
(d) Paragraph should be interconnected
3. Conclusion
(a) tally with introduction and main body
(b) Do not repeat what you said in introduction
(c) Do not introduce new ideas, argument or opinion but should represent closure of the issues.
4. Accompanying information
Refer to Page 102-105

14. Which of the following is not criterion use for evaluating information?

A. Authority
B. Reliability
C. Objectivity
D. Readability

Read more

Friday, April 2, 2010

Time Table For Semester January 2010 Final Examination

Friday, 2nd April 2010

Today is a Good Friday, a public holiday in Sarawak. It is supposed to be a long weekend, and normally in the past, the whole family will be visiting some of the interesting places or shopping mall in Kuching.
But this time, except for Kenneth Bugak my eldest who needs to stay in UiTM to complete his assignment, the rest of us just stay at home as I need to study to prepare for my final term examination which will start from Monday, 5th April until Saturday, 10th April 2010.
This is the sacrifices that my family and I have to make in order to fulfill my long term objective.

Let's me write down in my posting today the time table for Final Examination For Semester January 2010

Monday, 5th April 2010
  • 9.00AM - 10.30AM - Learning Skills For Open Distance Learners
Wednesday, 7th April 2010
  • 2.00PM - 3.10PM - English For Oral Communication
Saturday, 10th April 2010
  • 2.00PM - 3.30PM : BBPP1103 Prinsip Pengurusan

Good Luck to me!
Read more

Tuesday, March 9, 2010

Time Table For Mid-Term Examination

Tuesday, 9th March 2010

Important date to Remember:

Mid-Term Examination for Semester January 2010
(Please see Original Timetable by OUM HERE)

1. Subject : OUMH1103-Learning Skills For Open and Distance Learners

  • Date : Friday, 12th March 2010 - From 3.00PM to 3.45PM
  • Venue : To check with OUM
  • Topic to Cover :-
Topic 1-Managing your Learning
Topic 2 - Online Learning Environment
Topic 3 - Reading for Information
Topic 4 - Note-Making and Note-Taking Skills
2. Subject : OUMH 1303 English for Oral Communication

  • Date : Sunday, 14th March 2010 - From 900AM to 9.15PM
  • Venue : To check with OUM
  • Topic to Cover : Oral Test
  • Group : 3
3. Subject : BBPP1103 Principles of Management
  • Date : Monday, 15th March 2010 - From 9.00AM to 9.45AM
  • Venue : To check with OUM
  • Topic to Cover :-
Topic 1 - What is Management
Topic 2 - Planning
Topic 3 - Decision Making
Topic 4 - Organisation Design.

Read more

Sunday, February 21, 2010




Read more

Monday, February 8, 2010

BBPP1103-Topic 1. What Is Management


Upon completion of the topic, one should be able to :

1) Describe the meaning of management
2) Identify the function of Management
3) Appraise the roles of managers
4) Review the main skills of managers
5) Discuss perspectives in management

Before going further with the subject, first of all, one should be able to differentiate between professional and manager.
As an illustration, professional like doctor, lawyer and architect use their skills in order to perform their tasks. They cannot be replaced by someone who has not qualified to perform the tasks.
Whereas manager job is to perform management. Management in a nutshell means directing people to perform tasks effectively and efficiently, thus achieve the objectives.
A manager does not necessarily need to know how to perform a specific job but needs to act as coordinator to ensure that the task is carried out smoothly.

Definition Of Management

Based on the illustration above therefore the management can be defined as :-

The process of overseeing and coordinating resources
efficiently and effectively in line with the goals of the
Who are Managers

A manager is an individual who is directly responsible for ensuring that tasks are performed by people or employees in an organisation

Functions of Management

Figure 1.1 Main Functions of Management
OUM Module Book (BBPP1103) p. 3

Roles of a Manager

A professor of Management, Professor Henry Mintzberg, carried out a detailed analysis of managers by walking around and observing what managers did at work. He observed other than playing function as PLOC, they also played important roles : Figurehead, Leader, Liaison Officer, spoke person, negotiator and Initiator -entrepreneurship, capability development process and reformation process .
Assentials Skills of Managers

A good managers require to have these three esseential skills as follows

1. Conceptual Skills
Conceptual skill refers to the ability to view the organization as a whole, and the impact of the different sections have on the organisation, as a whole and on each other. Also involved observing how an organisation adapts to or is affected by external environmental factors such as society, economic pressure, customers and competition.

2. Interpersonal Skills
Interpersonal skills refer to ability to work well with other people. Managers with good interpersonal skills work more effectively in a group, encouraging others employee to input their ideas and comments as well as being receptive to the needs and views of others.

3. Technical Skills
Technical skills refer to the ability to apply procedure, techniques and specialised knowledge required in certain tasks.

Types Of Managers

Basically there are three level of Managers, namely:

1. Top-Level Managers. The highest level managers in the organisations. They are commonly known as executives. Title given such as president, chief executive officer, vice president or chief financial officer. Most of the times spend on PLANNING and SETTING GOALS.

2. Middle-level managers. They are usually designated as managers. Most of their times use for define goals for specific projects for lower level managers to implewment.

3. Lower-Level Managers or Line manager. The lowest in the management ladder. They are usually called supervisors. They include production supervisors, who oversee employees in a factory. They focus on giving instructions/directions and controlling their subordinates at work daily to ensure the success of the projects.
Evaluation of Management Theory
Figure 1.2 Evolution of Management Theory
OUM Module Book (BBPP 1103 ) p. 10

Since the 19th century until the 20th century, there are four (4) different classes of perspectives on management as follows (Refer to figure 1.2 above).

1. Classical Perspective. Existed in early 19th Century and early 20th century. It focused on the rational and sciectific approaches to the study of management, and on finding way to mould an organisation to become more efficient.There are three sub-classes in this perspective, namely :
1.1 Sciencetific Management. Existed when productivity was critical for businessmen. This perspective was used to improve the performance of employees. Among the researchers involved in developing sciencetific management were Frederick Winslow Taylor, Frank and Lilian Gilbreth and Henry Gantt.

Frederick Taylor (1856-1915). Suggested that the problem arose mainly due to management practices, and making decisions based on "rules of thumb" be substituited with established procedure.
His theory which stated that productivity of an employee could be increased through sciencetifically management practices earned him "the father of Sciencetific Management".
His research on how to improve the work performance of employees entitled " Time and Motions Study", found five (5) principles of management that could boost the efficioency of employees, as follow:
1.1.1 Using theSciencetific approach to determine best practices and not relying on "rules of thumb"
1.1.2 Selecting suitable employees to perform a particular task. Suitability covers mental and physical aspects.
1.1.3 Training and developing employee so that he is able to perform a given task according to established procedures
1.1.4 Giving monetary incentives to ensure that employees perform a task accordingly
1.1.5 Reassigning all responsibilities relating to planning and organising to the manager.
Henry Grantt (1861-1919). Introduced Gantt chart whic is still popularly used until now. Focused on control system in the scheduling of production.

Frank (1868-1924) and Lilian Gilbreth (1878-1072) -Husband and wife.
Lilian Gilbreth was a pioneer in the field of industrial psychology. She believed that if the sciencetific management was widely used, the abilities of each employee would grow considerably.

1.2. Bureaucratic Management
An approach to management that is based on guidelines, hierachy, clear division of labour, and as well as rules and procedure.

Max Weber (1864-1920). A German social theorist whom introduced a lot of bereaucratic concepts. Among the bureaucratic concepts that he introduced were :

1.2.1 Authorithy and clearly defined responsibilities
1.2.2 Position in the organisation that are structured according to hierachy
1.2.3 Promotions based on qualifications
1.2.4 Recors of all administrative actions and decisions to ensure continuity of organisational rules
1.2.5 Saparation of management and ownership
1.2.6 Guidelines implemented to all employees without bias.
Bureaucratic approach strives to increase efficiency and ensure continuity of overall operations of the organisation.

1.3 Administrative Management
It focused on organisation as a whole.

Henry Fayol (1841-19250.
The pioneer of administrative theory as he introduced the Organisational Principle and Administrative functions.
He defined the management roles PLOC. He identified 14 principles of management.
1.3.1 Division of Labour. The concept on specialisation of work based on following assumptions
(a) No one can do all the work
(b) Each job requires different skills
(c) Repeatition of works will increase efficiency
1.3.2 Authority. The right to give directions and power to be complied with.
1.3.3 Disciplines. Based on respect and comformity.
1.3.4 Unity of Command. An employee should recieved instructions from one superior only.
1.3.5 Unity of direction. One superior and one direction for a particular activity with the same objective.
1.3.6 Subordination of individual Interests to the general interests. Personal interest should not precede or exceed over common interest.
1.3.7 Remuneration. Salary payment based on various factors.
1.3.8 Centralisation. The centralisation of works depends on the situation and formal communication channel,
1.3.9 Scalar Chain. This is about the line of authority and its formal communication channel.
1.3.10 Order. Resources are allocated in the right place at the right time.
1.3.11 Equity. Form out of justice and virtue
1.3.12 Stability of tenure. This is necessity in good human resources planning
1.3.13 Initiative. This is the hope that employees will work diligently and sincerity.
1.3.14 Esperit de Cotps. Loyalty and devotion in uniting the members of a group. It emphasises on harmony and unity in an organisation.
Mary Parker Follet (1868-1933).
Her approach focused on the involvement of employees and sharing of information among managers.Her main concepts included delegation of authority, leading employees and not commanding them as well as allowing employees to act according to situations.
Chester I. Barnard ( 1886-1961)
He introduced the informal organisation concept. According to him the organisations are not mere machineries and that informal relations could be apowerful tool and an asset to an organisation if properly managed.
Also introduced the ACCEPTANCE THEORY OF AUTHORITY which stated that employees have option to complying with the directive of the management. Managers shouldv treat their employees well as the acceptance of authority by employees is critical in ensuring the success of of an organisation
To be continued with 2 the Human Perspective, 3 Quantitative Management approach and 4 Contemporary Approach
Date : 9th Feb 2010 at 0247.
Read more

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

OUMH1103 Topic 1. Learning Skills For Open and Distance Learners

Sunday, 17th January 2010

(a) OUMH1103 Module is one of the important module in which every student need to understand, thus the class which was scheduled on 23rd January 2010 had been brought forward to 17th January 2010.
(b) Module OUMH1103 consists of 10 topics namely :-

Topic 1 - Managing your Learning. It is an introduction to OUM's learning environment and the student can become an independent learner. In general the topic look at strategies for managing stress, setting effective academic and personal goals, motivational tips, time management, and improving concentration. Student will also be able to identify their personal learning style.

Topic 2. Will enable students to familiarise themself with the components of the personal computer and internet. Students will also be acquainted with the myLMS and its features.

Topic 3. This topic will examine various reading techniques, including fast reading and slow reading. The fast reading methods that are discussed are scanning and skimming.On the other hand, the slow reading techniques are critical and analytical approaches, which are discussed in detail using SQ3R.

Topic 4. Will look at 5 methods of note-making and note-taking. This topic will also provide tips on how to take note more effectively.

Topic 5. Will guide you on how to write an assignment and prepare for the oral presentation. This topic will also look into method to cite information using the American Psychological Association (APA), the style which is adopted by OUM.
Topic 6. This topic discuss on some important point such as how to do revision and improve our memory, techniques for answering various types of assessement questions. Apart from that, this topic is also emphasized on ethical conduct so that students can cop[e with assessements effectively.
Topic 7. This topic will discuss about the digital library such as Tan Sri Dr Abdullah Sanusi Digital Library. This topic lay out the process of gathering information. Specifically it will guided the student to use 5 Search strategies and Boolean connectors to search for information.
Topic 8. This topic will discuss skills involved in retyrieving information like searching OPAC, electronic database and information from internet. This topic will also enable the students to distinguish that printed materials are searched in OPAC, while e-books and e-journals are searched under the electronic database.
Topic 9. Will help student to determine the authenticity of information by giving tips on evaluation of various sources of information.
Topic 10. Will focus on basic ICT skills such as using microsoft window application: microsoft words, excel and power point.


In this topic/posting today, I will highlight on OUM Blended Learning, Managing Stress, How to set goal, motivational strategis, time management, concentration strategies for better learning and last will be on Personal learning styles.

OUM's Learning Environment

While studying in school we were guided and taught by our teachers. But in UOM, student have to play the lead role meaning one has to manage his/her own learning, indicate their learnings preferences to their tutors, and strtegies to be successful open and distance learners.
OUM is adopting a "Blended " approach to Learning with multi-modes strategies. OUM blended learning is defined as a learning method which combined online learning with face-to-face interaction between student and tutor.

OUM's Blended Learning

Figure 1.1 Blended Learning at OUM
Source : Abdullah sanusi Ahmad (2003, pg.6)

Self-Managed Learning

A self-managed learning requires students to study independently. The main sources of learning materials will be from printed and also the digital materials.
The advantages of self-managed learning are :-
  1. Improve employability
  2. Quality learning
  3. Ability to make effective use of new technology
  4. Preparation for life-long learning
The above advantages are what written in OUMH1103 Learning Skills for Open and Distance Learners, Version Jul 2009.
I fully understand, and do agree with the advantages (2) to (4). But I dont quite understand on advantage (1), how self-managed learning could improve improve the employablity of someone. For me, the method of learning will not be able to improve the employability of someone but only one paper qualification will do.

Face-to-Face Interaction (Classroom)

Face-to Face interaction is a toturial sessions conducted in actual classroom set-up by tutor at OUM learning centres. During the class, issues related to course materials, assignments and others are discussed. These sessions are conducted fortnightly during weekends.

Oline Learning Methodologies

Online learning means using electronic communication tools such as e-mail, forum and chatroom for discussion and to debate on relevant subjets between tutor and students. OUM also provided electronic learning materials to students which can be accessed via OUM Learning Management Systems (myLMS)

Independent Student
Every OUM students are expected to study independently. Some of the techniques suggested to become Independent students are :

(1) Planning and Managing Smartway
(2) Applying Smart time Management
(3) Motivate yourself
(4) Developing learning strategies

Maximizing OUM Learning Facilities
In order to score good exam results, all students are advised to make full use of OUM facilities such as follows :-

(1) Face-to-Face Tutorial
(2) Learner Service Centre
(3) Information Resources
(4) Online discussion Forum

Personally I experienced with Face-to-Face Tutorial and learner services centre. But for the Information Resources and Online discussion Forum, so far I’ve not been successfully to use both of the facilities. The Discussion Forum was not user friendly. The topic discussed were not put in the Table Of Contents therefore very difficult to find the topic that interests the users or relevant to user.

Managing Stress

Strategies For Managing Stress
For the adult learner which is not only responsible toward his studies but also toward his work and the well being of his family members, is very vulnerable to stress.
Stress if not manage properly can have negative impact to one health therefore will affect his/her study.
Some of the most common causes of stress that a self-managed learner could encounter include those related to academic performance, lifestyle changes, health, social relationships, family and friends.
Therefore it is very important that one must master some strategies in more realistic and reasonable ways to overcome any stressful situation.

(1) Take Action to Organise Yourself
(2) Control Your Environment by Controlling Who and What is Surrounding You
(3) Give Yourself Positive Feedback
(4) Reward Yourself
(5) Exercise Your Body
(6) Relax
(7) Rest as Regularly as Possible
(8) Be Aware of Yourself
(9) Eat a Balanced Diet
(10) Learn to Enjoy Yourself

Coping with Everyday Study Problems
Some ways to cope with everyday study problems are as follows:
(1) Recognise Your Own Resources
(2) You Do Not Have to Cope Alone
(3) Be Realistic
(4) You Cannot Achieve Absolute Control
(5) Learn to Accept Failure

The stress also can caused anxiety. There are two type of anxiety; The anticipatory anxiety and situational anxiety. Anticipatory anxiety ( )is an anxiety that one experience before starting a challenging activity. Where as situational anxiety
( )
is a state of apprehension, discomfort and anxiety. Participated by the experience of new or changed situations or event, and usually disappears as the person adjust to new experience.
As an OUM learner, one may get anxious when about to face an examination or when it is time to hand in the assignment. Much of the anxiety comes from the fear that you might not perform well in the task, be it an examination or an assignment.
Below are some important points that can help you overcome anxieties :

Anticipatory anxiety:
(1) Relax.
(2) Be focused.
(3) Think positive.
(4) Study in a group.
(5) Have a speciÔc study time.
(6) Get a set of complete notes.
(7) Get comfortable with your study place.
(8) Know where you stand and where you are heading.

Situational anxiety
(1) Be punctual.
(2) Organise your work schedule.
(3) Avoid highly anxious friends.
(4) Read and understand the instructions.
(5) Work at a comfortable pace.
(6) Ask for clariÔcation.
(7) Keep moving.
(8) Relax.

Thus, the most important thing that the OUM students can do to control anxiety level is by studying and knowing the material well enough so that you can recall clearly even under stress. Learn to set goals, motivate yourself, practise good time management and avoid laziness, procrastination or day dreaming.

Goal Setting
Characteristics of Effective Goals
(1) Goals must be self-chosen. You yourself need to determine your own goals.
(2) Goals must be relevant and congruent to your mission and core values.
(3) Goals must be challenging. These are goals which require you to achieve more than you did before, but will not give you unnecessary pressure of achievement.
(4) Goals must be realistic or attainable. To set realistic goals, you must evaluate your chances of achieving the goals. Ensure that you have the necessary knowledge, skills, talents or resources to accomplish your goals.
(5) Goals must be specific. Specific goals are necessary both to measure progress and to ensure their attainment. The more specific your goals, the more you will be motivated to achieve them.
(6) Goals must be measurable. They are measurable if you can determine whether or not you reach them.
(7) Goals must be time-bounded. If goals are not time-bounded, you will delay action towards attaining them. Deadlines are also important in motivating you towards attaining your goals.
(8) Goals must be positive. When working towards something, it helps to have positive attitudes.
(9) Goals should be written and kept in a place where you can see them often. Writing crystallizes thought which motivates action.

In establishing effective goals, all you need to remember is the mnemonic, SMART which stands for:


Motivational Strategies for Successful Learning
Motivation is the force which causes events in the mind to occur. It can be described as something that energises, directs, and sustains behaviour towards a particular goal. It affects how you do your work, when you do your work, how long you work on a task, how well you concentrate on your work, and which study strategies you use.
Here are some of the basic strategies that could help you to motivate yourself:

(1) Set Challenging but Realistic Learning Goals
(2) Break Down the Bigger Task at Hand
(3) Maintain a Positive Attitude
(4) Aim for Higher Peaks
(5) Use Active Learning Strategies
(6) Learn from Mistakes
(7) Monitor Your Learning

Time Management

Time management is the way you regulate or schedule your time. The key to successful time management is allowing enough time to complete your work while still finding time to complete other responsibilities. All successful time management begins with planning. Some of the benefits of effective time management are that it helps you to:
(1) plan ahead;
(2) evaluate your progress;
(3) spend more productive time;
(4) take control of your own activity;
(5) prioritizes by listing the most important things to do first; and
(6) avoid time conflict like getting caught with 2 assignments with the same deadline.


Discovering your learning style can help improve your learning. When you know your learning style, you can be more focused on your learning, thus improving your concentration. There are many different styles of learning.
There are three type of learners, as follows :-

Active And Reflective Learners
(1) Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it·discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first.
(2) “Let’s try it out and see how it works” is an active learner’s phrase; “Let’s think it through first” is the reflective learner’s response.
(3) Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners, who prefer working alone.
(4) Sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but take notes is hard for both learning types, but particularly hard for active learners.

Everybody is active sometimes and reflective sometimes. Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. A balance of the two is desirable. If you always act before reflecting you can jump into things prematurely and get into trouble, while if you spend too much time reflecting you may never get anything done.

Sensing and Intuitive Learners

(1) Sensing learners tend to like learning facts, intuitive learners often prefer discovering possibilities and relationships.
(2) Sensors often like solving problems by well-established methods and dislike complications and surprises; intuitors like innovation and dislike repetition. Sensors are more likely than intuitors to resent being tested on material that has not been explicitly covered in class.
(3) Sensors tend to be patient with details and good at memorizing facts and doing hands-on (laboratory) work; intuitors may be better at grasping new concepts and are often more comfortable than sensors with abstractions and mathematical formulations.
(4) Sensors tend to be more practical and careful than intuitors; intuitors tend to work faster and to be more innovative than sensors.

Visual and Verbal Learners
Visual learners remember best what they see · pictures, diagrams, Òow charts, time lines, Ôlms, and demonstrations. Verbal learners get more out of words · written and spoken explanations. Everyone learns more when information is presented both visually and verbally. In most college classes very little visual information is presented: students mainly listen to lectures and read material written on chalkboards and in textbooks and handouts. Unfortunately, most people are visual learners, which means that most students do not get nearly as much as they would if more visual presentation were used in class. Good learners are capable of processing information presented either visually or verbally.

Sequential and Global Learners

(1) Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one. Global learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly “getting it”
(2) Sequential learners tend to follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions; global learners may be able to solve complex problems quickly or put things together in novel ways once they have grasped the big picture, but they may have difficulty explaining how they did it.

What Type of Leaner Am I ?
Based on self-assessment using the ILS form at Page 29, what type of learner do you think am I belong to ?

Thanks for reading

Please leave your comments here or you can e-mail your comments to my e-mail address. Please refer to navigation bar above for my e-mail address.
c) Tutor. The tutor for this subject is Hairol Nizam. He is from UNITAR.
Read more

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Ice Breaker

Tuesday, 26th January 2010

This blog was created on 18th January 2010, about one week after I enroled mysef into bachelor progaram at Open University Malaysia.

OUM Convocation On 19th November 2009 - EDOSH Program. For more photos please Visit Safeselamat

A decision to continue my study was not an easy task. After completing my Exceutive Diploma in Occupational Safety and Health with Open University Malaysia (Institute of Professional Development -IPD) and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health -NIOSH, I had three options to take. First option was to look for a safety job and relocate from Kuching, second choice to Continue my study in BACHELOR OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT WITH HONOURS and remain in Kuching, and the third choice was to look for safety job in any places and at the same time still continue with my existing job.
The options were quite difficult to choose, as any wrong decision made could jeorpardised my aspiration to continue my study. After consultation with my strong supporter who is also my wife, I chosed the second option, that was to Continue my study in BACHELOR OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT WITH HONOURS and remain in Kuching.

What is the Objective of This Blog

This blog will become a venue for me to write notes and to record the progress of my study, and any visitor that share the same interest with me, it will become a venue for discussion.

Why I Chosed OUM

First and foremost because of it distance from my house, as my house is just about 2 minutes drive from OUM, secondly because OUM offers the program of my interest (safety program), thirdly of course method of learning offers by OUM suit my study mode as a working adult. And last or fourth reason was because I experienced studying with OUM during my EDOSH program which was just completed and graduated in November 2009. Please refer to my posting on EDOSH convocation at PWTC here and here.
Read more

Wednesday, January 20, 2010


The purpose for the setting-up of this Weblog is for me to write down what I learned during the tutorials and to have discussion with anyone who has the same interests with me.

Your Name
Your Email Address
Image Verification
Please enter the text from the image:
[ Refresh Image ] [ What's This? ]

Read more